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This page is a guide line only and all travelers are
strongly recommended to visit either their private doctor
or a health
clinic, experienced in travel, 4-8 weeks before departure for further
Malaria occurs within the Lowveld areas of Mpumalanga, right through the
Malaria is spread by the Anopheles mosquito, so
preventing yourself being bitten is of paramount
Mosquito nets and repellents are strongly
recommended after sundown.
Try to avoid being bitten by
wearing clothing that covers the arms,legs and ankles and use
repellant' - (See DEET below) - on the exposed parts of your
body as well as sleeping under treated mosquito nets.
in malaria areas use effective DEET insect repellents
Try and ensure that the
doors and windows of your accommodation are screened against
mosquitoes and try and keep them closed, especially before
dusk. Having a fan or air-conditioner on at night will keep
mosquito activity down to a minimum.
Malaria prophylaxis is recommended for all travelers to
The three most commonly used ones are;
taken once weekly in a dosage of 250 mg, starting one-to-two
weeks before arrival and continuing through the trip and for
four weeks after departure.
Mefloquine may cause mild
neuropsychiatric symptoms, including nausea, vomiting,
dizziness, insomnia, and nightmares.
Other reactions can
occur, including depression,anxiety, psychosis,
hallucinations, and seizures.
Mefloquine should not be
given to anyone with a history of seizures, psychiatric
illness, cardiac conduction disorders, or allergy to quinine
Those taking mefloquine (Lariam) should read
the Lariam Medication Guide and possibly conduct tests before
2.) (PDF). Atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone)
is a recently approved combination pill taken once daily with
food starting two days before arrival and continuing through
the trip and for seven days after departure.
which are typically mild, may include abdominal pain, nausea,
vomiting, headache, diarrhea, or dizziness. Serious adverse
reactions are rare.
3.)Doxycycline is effective, but
may cause an exaggerated sunburn reaction,
its usefulness in the tropics
Syptoms such as fever, chills, headaches, and
muscle aches, should be considered as an indication of
Malaria symptoms can sometimes not occur for
months or even years after exposure.
Diarrhoea is a very common ailment when travelling.
Most cases of diarrhoea when travelling are mild and do not
require either antibiotics or anti-diarrhoea
Adequate fluid intake is essential for any
traveller suffering from diarrhoea, to prevent dehydration.
The most important aspect of preventing diarrhoea is
treatment and care, as far as food and water intake is
Travelers are advised to carry with them an
antibiotic as well as an anti-diarrhoea drug, to be taken as
soon as significant diarrhoea starts.(Three or more loose
stools in an 8-hour period or five or more loose stools in a
If diarrhoea is combined with nausea,
vomiting, cramps, fever or blood in the stool, an antibiotic
should be administered.
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)(PDF) 500 mg
twice daily or
Levofloxacin (Levaquin) (PDF) 500 mg once
daily for a total of three days.
Quinolones are generally
well-tolerated, but occasionally cause sun sensitivity and
should not be given to children, pregnant women, or anyone
with a history of quinolone allergy.
treatment could be a three day course of rifaximin (Xifaxan)
200 mg three times daily or azithromycin (Zithromax) 500 mg
Rifaximin should not be used by those with
fever or bloody stools and is not recommended for pregnant
women or children under the age of 12.
be avoided in those allergic to erythromycin or related
An antidiarrhoea medicine such as loperamide
(Imodium) or diphenoxylate (Lomotil) should be taken as needed
to slow the frequency of stools, but not enough to stop the
Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) and
loperamide (Imodium) should not be given to children under the
age of 2.
If diarrhoea is, severe, bloody, or if fever
occurs accommpanied by shivering and chills, or if abdominal
pain becomes severe, or if diarrhoea lasts for more than 72
hours, medical attention should be sought.
antibiotics are effective, they should not be taken as a
Food and water precautions;
Don't drink tap water unless
it has been boiled, filtered, or chemically disinfected.
Don't drink unbottled beverages or put ice in your drinks
unless you know that the ice is safe to drink.
fruit or vegetables unless they have been washed very
thoroughly peeled or cooked.
Avoid cooked foods that are
no longer hot. because cooked food that has been left at room
temperature can be very dangerous.
Avoid unpasteurized milk
and any products that might have been made from unpasteurized
milk.When using powdered milk make sure the water you mix it with is safe.
Avoid food and beverages obtained from street
Do not eat raw or undercooked meat or fish.
(recommended but not a necessity)
Inoculation regulations can change at short notice. Please get medical advice in the case of doubt.
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR).
Recommended for all travelers
Recommended for all travelers
One-time booster recommended for any adult traveler who completed the childhood series but never had polio vaccine as an adult.
For travelers who may have intimate contact with local residents, especially if visiting for more than 6 months.
For travelers who may have direct contact with animals and may not have access to medical care
Two doses recommended for all travelers born after 1956, if not previously given.
Revaccination recommended every 10 years.
A yellow fever vaccination certificate is required of travellers over one year of age arriving from countries with infected areas.
- Bring adequate supplies of all medications in their original containers, clearly labeled.
- Carry a signed, dated letter from your doctor, describing all medical conditions and listing all medications, including generic names.
- If you carry syringes or needles,(Which is highly recommended), make sure that you carry the above doctors letter confirming their necessity.
- Pack all medications in hand luggage. Carry a duplicate supply in your packed luggage.
- If you wear glasses or contacts, bring an extra pair.
- If you have significant allergies or chronic medical problems, wear a medical alert bracelet.
HIV & AIDS
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HIV/AIDS is a major danger in Southern Africa and responsible precautions are of major importance, when indulging in sexual practices with strange partners. Maputo's night life is renowned but care has to be exercised when partaking of the pleasures of the flesh because of the very very real danger of HIV/AIDS.
Diarrhoeal diseases, giardiasis, dysentery and typhoid fever are all common. Bilharzia (schistosomiasis) is present.
Avoid swimming and paddling in fresh water; swimming pools which are well chlorinated and maintained are safe.
Hepatitis A, B and E are present. Meningococcal meningitis may occur. Human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) has been
reported. Plague has been reported in remote areas. Visitors should also be wary of the dangers of tetanus.
Rabies is present. For those at high risk, vaccination before arrival should be considered. If you are bitten, seek medical
advice without delay.
SUNBURN:- Take plenty of sunblock of a high factor and stay out of the direct sun in the middle of the day.